The Republic of Uganda is presently engaged, as many other developing countries, in reform of its intellectual property laws. The process raises a number of questions as to whether it addresses priorities besides the legal framework. What has prompted the reforms and what systems of innovation does the country have so as to harness the power of patents in enhancing Uganda’s technological capacity? The article also challenges the philosophy and orthodoxy that underpins the basis for patent protection in facilitating the transfer of technology to developing countries and stimulating innovations. In particular, it is argued that patent legislation reform can be meaningful if it is met with marching reforms outside the ambit of the law.